PIB News 12th Sep, 2020


(General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management, Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.)

IPFT develops new “Disinfectant Sprays” to prevent microbial infections and to decontaminate vegetables and fruits
At a time when COVID pandemic has created havoc globally, Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology- IPFT an autonomous Institution under the Department of Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers has successfully developed two new technologies namely “Disinfectant spray for surface application” and “Disinfectant spray for Vegetables & fruits.”

According to a statement provided by IPFT   the variety of surfaces like door handles, chair armrest, computer keyboard & mouse taps etc. may transmit microbes to the individuals through direct or indirect contact. Keeping this in view IPFT has developed; alcohol based “Disinfectant Spray” for the surface applications containing botanical anti-microbial which may be effective in prevention from various diseases caused by microbes, bacteria and virus. The formulation is volatile and evaporates quickly after disinfecting the surface and does not leave any stains, odor and residue etc. 

IPFT has also developed Disinfectant Spray to remove pesticide residues left over on the surface of fruits and vegetables.  Fruits & vegetables are basic food commodities and necessary component of daily nutrition. Sometime non judicious uses of pesticide contaminate raw vegetables and fruits as pesticide residues  persist on their surface and can causes health risk upon consumption. 

To make fruits and vegetables 100 percent safe for human consumption  IPFT has developed a water-based formulation .The decontamination procedure using the formulation is simple; vegetables or fruits are soaked in the diluted solution of this formulation for15-20 minutes thereafter rinsed with fresh water.  This simple procedure makes fruits and vegetables totally pesticide free.

Gurugram, Haryana, based IPFT was Established in May 1991 under the Department of Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers as an Autonomous Institution. Intitute has been working towards the development of safer, efficient and environment friendly pesticide formulations. IPFT has four administrative divisions namely, Formulation Technology Division, Bioscience Division, Analytical Science Division and a Process Development Division.

 

(General Studies- II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations, Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.)

President of India appoints veteran actor Paresh Rawal as new Chairman of National School of Drama Society
Union Minister of State for Culture Shri Prahlad Singh Patel congratulates Shri Paresh Rawal
National Award-winning actor has been appointed as the New Chairman of NSD Society for 4 years

Veteran Actor Paresh Rawal has been appointed as Chairman of National School of Drama Society by President of India Shri Ram Nath Kovind. Union Minister of State for Culture & Tourism Shri Prahlad Singh Patel congratulated Shri Paresh Rawal and said that his talent will benefit the students and artists of the country.

Mr. Paresh Rawal has been appointed to the post of Chairman, NSD Society for four years. Mr. Rawal is an actor par excellence in both Theatre and Film. Its been almost four decades of him serving the film and theatre industry for which he has won numerous awards, including the prestigious National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1994. In 2014, he was conferred with the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award in India, for his contribution to the entertainment industry. He also served as a former member of Parliament.

Commenting on the appointment Vice Chairman, National School of Drama Society Dr. Shri Arjun Deo Charan said “We are really happy with the decision of the government to appoint Paresh ji for this position. Our students, faculty members and others will get benefit to work with the veteran actor. National School of Drama will be immensely benefited by his long experience in the field.”.

Prof. Suresh Sharma, Director In charge, National School of Drama said “It is our pleasure to welcome Mr. Paresh Rawal as the next Chairman of National School of Drama Society. Being a veteran theatre personality Paresh ji has a great experience, which will benefit our students, faculty and school and we will get a new direction from his experiences.His support and guidance will further accelerate the growth of National School of Drama to reach new heights.”

The Staff members of National School of Drama are delighted to have an extra ordinary actor and a fantastic human being as their Chairman. The whole NSD family is eagerly waiting to welcome him on the campus and share the vision to work with more determination and dedication for the growth of the Institution which has been playing a pioneering role for Indian culture to make India a Vishwa Guru.

Brief introduction of National School of Drama (NSD):

Established in 1959, the National School of Drama is an autonomous organization, fully financed by the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. One of the foremost theatre training institutions in the world, NSD had it’s inception under the aegis of the Sangeet Natak Akademi and became an independent entity in 1975. It offers a 3-year, full-time, residential training program in various aspects of theatre. The enviable list of alumni and faculty members have ensured that the institution remains at the helm of performing arts – several theatre practitioners who passed from the prestigious institution, including playwrights, actors, directors, set and light designers and music directors, have enriched the Indian theatre and continue to do so. Apart from theatre, the artistic manifestations of NSD alumni have often left an indelible mark in other media as well. There are two performing wings of NSD – the Repertory Company and Theatre-in Education Company (TiE) that started in 1964 and 1989, respectively. Along with NSD, New Delhi four centres have been established at Varanasi, Gangtok, Agartala and Bengaluruunder consolidation of outreach programme.

 

(General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management, Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.)

Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, an excellent source of fuel methane
Methane hydrate deposits in this basin are a rich source that will ensure adequate supplies of methane, a natural gas
This study using molecular and culturing techniques revealed maximum methanogenic diversity in the KG basin, which is one of the prominent reasons to confirm it to be the extreme source of biogenic methane in comparison to the Andaman and Mahanadi basins

As the world runs out of fossil fuels and looks out for alternate sources of clean energy, there is good news from the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin. The methane hydrate deposit in this basin is a rich source that will ensure adequate supplies of methane, a natural gas.

Methane is a clean and economical fuel. It is estimated that one cubic meter of methane hydrate contains 160-180 cubic meters of methane. Even the lowest estimate of methane present in the methane hydrates in KG Basin is twice that of all fossil fuel reserves available worldwide.

In a recent study conducted by researchers at the Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India have found that the methane hydrate deposits are located in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin are of biogenic origin. The study was conducted as a part of the DST-SERB young scientist project titled ‘Elucidating the community structure of methanogenic archaea in methane hydrate’. Methane hydrate is formed when hydrogen-bonded water and methane gas come into contact at high pressures and low temperatures in oceans.

According to the present study accepted for publishing in the journal Marine genomics’theARI team has further identified the methanogens that produced the biogenic methane trapped as methane hydrate, which can be a significant source of energy.

“The massive methane hydrate deposits of biogenic origin in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin and near the coast of Andaman and Mahanadi make it necessary to study the associated methanogenic community,” said Dr. Vikram B Lanjekar, the Principal Investigator of the study.

According to the ARI team, until recently, there have been only a few investigations of the methanogenic communities associated with methane hydrate-bearing sediments. This study has shown that methanogens under these elevated pressure and temperature conditions are well adapted to these conditions and are different in methane-producing activities. Understanding of these methane-producing methanogenic communities under such an extreme and pristine environment was very important. This study using molecular and culturing techniques revealed maximum methanogenic diversity in the KG basin, which is one of the prominent reasons to confirm it to be the extreme source of biogenic methane in comparison to the Andaman and Mahanadi basins.

The kinetics study based on their model also predicted the rate of biogenic methane generation in KG Basin hydrates to be 0.031 millimoles methane/gTOC/Day, resulting in total deposits of methane around 0.56 to 7.68trillion cubic feet (TCF). The sediment samples associated with methane hydrate deposits from Krishna Godawari, Andaman, and Mahanadi basin were provided by National Gas Hydrate Core Repository, GHRTC, ONGC, Panvel, Maharashtra for this study.

The ARI team has documented a predominance of genus Methanosarcina in KG basin, followed by a few other genera Methanoculleus,Methanobacterium. Genus Methanosarcina was found to be more diverse among the obtained genera with four different species M. siciliaeM. barkeri, M. flavescens, and M. mazeias per their findings.

Cultivation, isolation, and characterization of putative novel Methanoculleus sp. nov. and Methanosarcinaspnov. from methane hydrate sediments of Krishna Godavari basin, India are reported for first time,” said Dr. Vikram B Lanjekar, Principle Investigator of the study.

 

(General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management, Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.)

New information on atmospheric turbulence parameters of Himalaya region can help weather prediction
ARIES scientists estimate turbulence parameters in the lower troposphere over the central Himalayan region for the first time
“Magnitude of atmospheric turbulence is large at the lower altitudes due to the mountain wave activities and presence of low-level clouds” -- Study

Weather predictions becoming more certainand help in preventing air traffic disasters may now be easier and, especially in the Himalaya region. Thanks to certain atmospheric turbulence parameters specific to the Himalaya region that scientists have calculated.

Scientists at the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), an autonomous institute under the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Govt. of India, have estimated turbulence parameters in the lower troposphere over the central Himalayan region for the first time.

The researchers have calculated the magnitude of refractive index structure (Cn2), a constant that represents the strength of the atmospheric turbulence using observation from their Stratosphere Troposphere Radar (S T Radar). In the study published in Radio Science journal led by Aditya Jaiswal, a Ph.D. student at ARIES Nainital and ARIES faculties D.V. Phani Kumar, S. Bhattacharjee, and Manish Naja have found that the refractive index structure constant (Cn2) is as large as 10-14 m-2/3. Such large values at the lower altitudes are due to the mountain wave activities and presence of low-level clouds.

Proper and timely information of the higher values of the atmospheric turbulence parameters and understanding of time and space distribution of turbulence structure in the troposphere could help improve performance of numerical weather prediction and climate models.

While the turbulence parameters for southern India were known earlier, the same were not known over the Himalayan region. Thus some approximate values were used by modelers for calculation. They have now been found to be much higher over the Himalayan region. Now modelers will be able to update these values in their existing models. This will help in improving weather predictions. Also, precise knowledge on turbulence over this region will help in safe air traffic movements.

It is also important to model clear-air turbulence as that would aid in limiting the air traffic disasters, particularly over the complex mountainous regions. Low levels of cloud are generated in a mountainous region with complex topography. Because of this, stable air in this region is set into oscillations known as mountain waves and lee waves. Characterization of turbulence in the mountainous region is vital to understand the dynamics of mountain induced wave disturbances and other related phenomena, which has crucial role in modulating the general circulation wind patterns.

Talking about the SERB, DST funded indigenously developed ST Radar used in the study, DST Secretary Professor Ashutosh Sharma said, “Development of such radar at 206.5 MHz, within the country, will further strengthen our efforts to better understand the regional changes in weather and climate, particularly in the Himalayan region, which is having complex topography."


 










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